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Bài báo - Tạp chí
(2014) Trang: 20-22
Tạp chí: Incentivized Management of Mangrove Ecosystems in Southeast Asia (IMMESEA)

The study of the integrated mangrove-shrimp farming system in the Soc Trang province coastal areas aimed at three key objectives: (1) Determine major problems and opportunities, and develop solutions for improving this system; (2) Evaluate the effectiveness of proposed techniques in shrimp-mangrove practices; and (3) Identify conditions required for sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystem. A baseline assessment used focus group discussions and individual interviews to evaluate the local socio-economic, environmental and technical issues of the integrated shrimp-mangrove system. Subsequently, on-farm studies were carried out to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of project and farmers? techniques in shrimp-mangrove practices. Data related to natural, financial and environmental aspects were gathered and analysed.

The average mangrove-shrimp farm has a total land area of 22 ha, of which 65% was devoted to mangrove, 32% to shrimp ponds and the remaining area to cash crops and homestead. Farming activities of farmers were distributed over the year according to environmental conditions (e.g. salinity, temperature). Shrimps died due to temperature shocks, changes in water environment and diseases, and limited accessibility to good quality shrimp seed. The latter was partly due to poor facilities to inspect quality of shrimp seeds when buying from suppliers. The temperature shocks and constraints in water quality were related to inflexible local regulations for mangrove management, limiting farmers in cutting cumbersome trees and cleaning shrimp ponds. Resulting low pond? depth and DO provide poor conditions to shrimp. Both are related to policy rules on water exchange, pond cleaning and mangrove timbering. Fortunately, salinity and pH levels were suitable for the system

The pond?s cleaning, post larvae nursing and additional shrimp seeds supply improved the yield of shrimp and other aquatic animals (OAA) and the resilience of mangrove-shrimp system. While total production costs of the pilot farms were lower compared to both the control farms and before intervention in 2012, the yield of shrimp and OAA, as well as gross and net incomes of pilot farms were higher. Total costs of pilot farms was 3.6 ±0.9 million VND/ha/year and farmers earned a net income of about 24 million VND/ha/year. OAA contributed to about 45% to both gross and net income of the system. The annual benefit cost ratio of the shrimp-mangrove system was high because the system required low operational cost for farming, which suited well the financial situation of the farmers. At the National Workshop, local authorities and scientists confirmed that the tested techniques could be out-scaled in Soc Trang and other provinces in the Mekong Delta, if (still) needed in the local conditions.

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