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PHAM THI DIEU MY & NGUYEN QUY HANH (2018) Trang: 171-187
Tác giả: Lê Anh Tuấn
Tạp chí: HYDROPOWER IMPACTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GENDER PERSPECTIVES – EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND CENTRAL HIGHLANDS, VIETNAM
Liên kết:

Viet Nam is a country with high annual rainfall and many river systems, including 2,360 rivers with more than 10km in length each. The total length of rivers in Vietnam is up to 41, 900 km. The nation-wide has the system of 9 major rivers with more than 10,000 km2 catchment area. Except the Mekong Delta region, most river basins in Vietnam have steep slopes and high season flood flow, so it is quite favorable for the development of hydropower. In the past three decades, Vietnam has continuously developed many hydropower plants of different sizes. Within three years, from 2002 to 2004, Vietnam has built 17 large and medium-sized hydropower plants with a total installed capacity of 2,952 MW, and around 20 small-sized hydropower plant with a total capacity of 500 MW. According to the data of the Ministry of Trade (2011)[1], to 2010, the total capacity of installed hydropower was over 20,600 MW, increasing 3,2 times in comparison with that 10 years ago, and 1,78 times more than that in 2005. The amount of electricity production was estimated more than 100 billion kWh, which was 3,7 times more than that in 2000, and 1,88 times more than that in 2005. In the total amount of electricity produced in Vietnam currently, hydropower has contributed about 9,200 MW, making up 44,66% of the national electricity production. By 2020, according to the planning VII scheme (Prime Minister, 2011)[2], hydropower output of Vietnam will be 17,400 MW. Particularly, with the medium and small-sized hydropower of national hydropower development planning, there will have been nearly 1,000 projects with the total capacity of 7,500 MW. There have been 340 hydroelectric projects put into operation or in construction process. In 2012, the amount of electricity provided by medium and small-sized hydropower plants occupied 19% of generated hydropower and 7% of total generated electricity of the whole system. However, within the last five years, there have gradually arised various problems of environment, economy and society resulted from the development and operation of hydropower. Actual proofs have showed that hydropower projects had not complied with their commitments or affirmation to minimize damage as written in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Under the pressure of public opinion, especially the comments from scientists, local authorities, social civil organizations and the media system, various angles of hydropower projects have been reflected, analyzed, and evaluated. This has led the authorities and the central government to reconsider hydropower development plans. To date there have been 400 hydropower projects across the country being suspended, dismissed, adjusted the scale and forced to change the operation proceducre accordingly. This study reviews the reform of hydropower policies in Vietnam within three recent years, analyzes the relationship between the government and relevant stakeholders with evidences of hydropower adverse effect to factors like environment, economy, and society. The study also evalutes the role of social organizations in mobilizing policies to the reform of Vietnamese energy policy. Finally, this study also mentions lessons learnt from Vietnam and the applicabililty for the neighboring countries in using national strategy and energy development policy. The approach of this study bases on specific facts to review, analyze and evalute.

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