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Book chapter 2013
Số tạp chí 583(2013) Trang: 241-268
Tạp chí: On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture

The Mekong delta is considered as the most important region for aquaculture production in Viet Nam and in 2008 accounted for approximately 73 percent of the total national aquaculture production (IFEP, 2009). The delta has a total freshwater area of 641 350 ha, of which 480 181 ha has the potential for further aquaculture development; and has the most diversified aquatic farming activities and greatest potential for increasing aquaculture production. Thereare several species that are commercially produced in the delta, of which striped or tra) catfish is the most important. The production of striped catfish reached 1 147 000 tonnes in 2009 (Fisheries Directorate, 2010).The rapid expansion of striped catfish farming has resulted from various factors, of which the improvement of feed and feeding practices has played a key role. The feed and feeding of striped catfish has changed overtime. In the early days of the striped catfish farming industry, farm-made feed (FMF) was mainly used. FMF was used across all the culture systems including cages, pens and ponds. Manufactured pelleted feed (MPF) was first introduced to striped catfish cultured in cages in 1995 and 1996. Since 2004, the use of MPF has graduallybeen accepted by striped catfish farmers. The survey indicated that 63.3 percent, 17.4 percent and 19.3 percent farms used MPF, FMF or a combination of MPF and FMF, respectively. Over the past five years, the striped catfish MPF industry has been developing rapidly in Viet Nam, with annual production increasing from 300 000 tonnes in 2004 (Tran, 2005) to 2 240 000 tonnes in 2008 (Annex 1).The feeding practices used to culture striped catfish depends on the stock size and feed types. The feeding rates of MPF vary between 2 to 5 percent of body weight per day depending on the body weight of the fish, while the feeding rates for FMF are about 1?2 percent higher. Normally, three feedings are applied per day for the stock size of less than 100 g, one daily feeding is applied for the stock size of 800 g to harvest, and two daily feedings are used between these sizes. The feed conversion ratios vary according to feed type, and range from1.6:1 for MPF to 2.9:1 for FMF. Feed cost accounts for the largest portion of the total production cost. The feed cost of striped catfish fed full MPF, full FMF and combined MPF and FMF covers 82.9, 77.4 and 79.0 percent of the total production costs, respectively. The profit of striped catfish farming depends greatly on the feed cost and the farm-gate price. The survey showed that over the survey period 55 percent of farms lost money. There are several issues related to the management of feed in striped catfish culture that require further research. These relate to the determination of the nutritional requirements of the larger stock sizes, on-farm feed digestibility studies, the development of feed management strategies, and the use of FMF.?

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